15. Chare and Message Inheritance

Charm++ supports C++ like inheritance among Charm++ objects such as chares, groups, and messages, making it easier to keep applications modular and allowing reuse of code.

15.1 Chare Inheritance

Chare inheritance makes it possible to remotely invoke methods of a base chare from a proxy of a derived chare. Suppose a base chare is of type BaseChare, then the derived chare of type DerivedChare needs to be declared in the Charm++ interface file to be explicitly derived from BaseChare. Thus, the constructs in the .ci file should look like:

   chare BaseChare {
    entry BaseChare(someMessage *);
    entry void baseMethod(void);
  chare DerivedChare : BaseChare {
    entry DerivedChare(otherMessage *);
    entry void derivedMethod(void);

Note that the access specifier public is omitted, because Charm++ interface translator only needs to know about the public inheritance, and thus public is implicit. A Chare can inherit privately from other classes too, but the Charm++ interface translator does not need to know about it, because it generates support classes (proxies) to remotely invoke only public methods.

The class definitions of these chares should look like:

   class BaseChare : public CBase_BaseChare {
    // private or protected data
      BaseChare(someMessage *);
      void baseMethod(void);
  class DerivedChare : public CBase_DerivedChare {
    // private or protected data
      DerivedChare(otherMessage *);
      void derivedMethod(void);

It is possible to create a derived chare, and invoke methods of base chare from it, or to assign a derived chare proxy to a base chare proxy as shown below:

  otherMessage *msg = new otherMessage();
  CProxy_DerivedChare pd = CProxy_DerivedChare::ckNew(msg);
  pd.baseMethod();     // OK
  pd.derivedMethod();  // OK
  CProxy_BaseChare pb = pd;
  pb.baseMethod();    // OK
  pb.derivedMethod(); // COMPILE ERROR

To pass constructor arguments from DerivedChare::DerivedChare(someMessage*) to BaseChare::BaseChare(someMessage*), they can be forwarded through the CBase type constructor as follows:

 DerivedChare::DerivedChare(someMessage *msg)
: CBase_DerivedChare(msg) // Will forward all arguments to BaseChare::BaseChare

If no arguments are provided, the generated C++ code for the CBase_DerivedChare constructor calls the default constructor of the base class BaseChare.

Entry methods are inherited in the same manner as methods of sequential C++ objects. To make an entry method virtual, just add the keyword virtual to the corresponding chare method declaration in the class header- no change is needed in the interface file. Pure virtual entry methods also require no special description in the interface file.

15.2 Inheritance for Messages

Messages cannot inherit from other messages. A message can, however, inherit from a regular C++ class. For example:

 //In the .ci file:
  message BaseMessage1;
  message BaseMessage2;

//In the .h file:
  class Base {
    // ...
  class BaseMessage1 : public Base, public CMessage_BaseMessage1 {
    // ...
  class BaseMessage2 : public Base, public CMessage_BaseMessage2 {
    // ...

Messages cannot contain virtual methods or virtual base classes unless you use a packed message. Parameter marshalling has complete support for inheritance, virtual methods, and virtual base classes via the PUP::able framework.